ANALYSIS OF SMOKING RATES AMONG VORONEZH STUDENTS


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Abstract

Relevance. The prevalence of smoking in general and vaping in particular remains at a consistently high level, the assessment of which will serve as the presented work.The aim of the study is to determine the frequency, type of smoking, as well as the attitude of smokers themselves to their addiction.The material was obtained by questioning 291 students from different universities of Voronezh and subsequent analysis of the submitted answers using the StatTech v program. 1.2.0 using the "Fisher exact criterion" and chi-square Pearson at p < 0.05.As a result of the survey, we found out that 25% of respondents smoke daily, 7% - several times a week, and 6.2% smoke once a month. As for the popularity of various nicotine delivery systems among regular (daily and several times a week) smokers, 59% use vapes, 21% use cigarettes, 14% use electronic tobacco heating systems, and 6% use nicotine-free devices. The most significant disadvantage of vapes, cigarettes and electronic tobacco heating systems for their owners is the high cost of these devices; the reason for starting smoking for most was stress, interest in second place. About 60% of respondents in groups using vapes and cigarettes do not plan to quit smoking, and in a small group of electronic tobacco heating systems, the number of those who do not plan to quit was only 28%, and 21% noted that with the help of these devices they managed to give up cigarettes.Thus, it can be concluded that in the student environment of Voronezh, the number of daily smokers is 25% and vaping is the most widespread, and the majority of respondents do not intend to give up smoking. This situation requires new approaches to the fight against smoking, which will be studied and used by the team of authors in the future.

Full Text

Relevance. Smoking is one of the most common addictions that have plagued humanity for a huge number of years. This phenomenon has certainly not bypassed the youth environment. [1] However, due to the fact that young people are the most labile group of the population, they primarily adopt the trends spreading in society.According to the CEC data for 2020, 33% of citizens smoke in Russia, and since 2012 the number of users of vapes and electronic tobacco heating systems has been actively increasing, which causes even greater concerns of scientists due to the high content of harmful resins in them. [2, 3] Our work will show the existing smoking trends in youth as follows
Goal: to identify the prevalence of smoking and the predominant type of nicotine transmission devices among Voronezh students, as well as the attitudes of smokers themselves to their addiction.
Materials and methods. To fulfill the purpose of our work, an anonymous survey was conducted of 291 students of various Voronezh universities (including 150 students of N.N. Burdenko VSMU) in the age range from 17 to 28 years. The sample of respondents was carried out according to a combined (serial and actually random) type. Each selected person was asked to answer the following questionnaire questions: "how often do you smoke", "what do you smoke most often", "smoking what is not your opinion is the most harmful", "why did you start smoking", "have you been told about the dangers of smoking", "do you want or have you tried to give up smoking", "what inconveniences smoking causes you", "what could motivate you to quit smoking".According to the results of the survey , three particularly bright representative groups were formed:1- daily or several times a week vaping (59 people), 2- daily or several times a week smoking cigarettes (22 people),3- daily or several times a week smoking electronic tobacco heating systems (14 people)The received answers were analyzed through the StatTech v. 1.2.0 program using the "Fisher exact criterion" and chi-square Pearson at p < 0.05.
Results. As a result of the survey, we found out that 25% of respondents smoke daily, 7% - several times a week, and 6.2% smoke once a month. As for the popularity of various nicotine delivery systems among regular (daily and several times a week) smokers, 59% use vapes, 21% use cigarettes, and 14% use electronic tobacco heating systems, and 6% use nicotine-free devices.Answering the question "why did you start smoking" 53% of respondents noted stress, 31% - interest, 11% - an example in the family or among friends, 4% - fashion. As a motivation for quitting smoking, the majority notes economic encouragement and the development of a disease or pregnancy.Among the inconveniences of smoking, the most frequent smokers noted high economic costs, deterioration of physical condition, unpleasant odor and waste of time. At the same time, to the question for smokers or those who quit smoking: "do you want or have you tried to quit smoking", 46% answered that they do not plan to quit, 25% want to quit, 11% could not quit smoking, and 17% managed to quit smoking.Now let's take a closer look at the resulting groups. First, let's talk about the trends common to all smokers: the most significant drawback of vapes, cigarettes and electronic tobacco heating systems for their owners is the high cost of these devices; the reason for starting smoking for the majority was stress, with interest in second place.Important statistically significant differences were also revealed: about 60% of respondents in groups using vapes and cigarettes do not plan to quit smoking, and in a small group of electronic tobacco heating systems, the number of those who do not plan to quit was only 28%, and 21% noted that with the help of these devices they managed to give up cigarettes.Among the inconveniences caused by smoking, the deterioration of physical condition was identified by 41% of representatives of the second group (cigarettes), in the first and third groups, physical discomfort was noted by less than 30%.But one of the most unusual results was that the negative attitude of others to smoking was noted only by representatives of the first (vapes) and third (electronic tobacco heating systems) groups of about (10% in each), and among the cigarette smokers surveyed, no one noted a negative attitude on the part of others to smoking.
Discussion. Of course, it is worth noting that the number of respondents throughout the student environment was small, but even these data allow us to come to the results presented in the conclusions, as they fully reflect the current situation. I would also like to get ahead of the issues related to the statistical processing of unequal and small groups. The "Fisher's exact criterion" is therefore accurate because it is able to evaluate categorical data from 10 positions/
Conclusion. Thus, it can be concluded that in the student environment of Voronezh, the number of daily smokers is 25% and vaping is the most widespread, and the majority of respondents do not intend to give up smoking. This situation requires new approaches to the fight against smoking, which will be studied and used by the team of authors in the future.

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About the authors

Ignatiy Andreevich Ulyanov

Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: ilyanov.ignat@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1414-5406
SPIN-code: 5515-6885
Russian Federation, 10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, 394036, Russia

Alina Vladimirovna Ulyanova

Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko

Email: legostaeva.alina@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2638-5792
SPIN-code: 2100-0399
10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, 394036, Russia

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