ALEXANDER ALEKSANDROVICH BOGDANOV - SCIENTIST, DOCTOR, ORGANIZER AND DIRECTOR OF THE WORLD'S FIRST BLOOD TRANSFUSION INSTITUTE

  • Authors: Gudilina A.V.1, Makhinova O.V.2
  • Affiliations:
    1. Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko
    2. Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
  • Issue: Vol 11 (2022): V ВСЕРОССИЙСКАЯ СТУДЕНЧЕСКАЯ НАУЧНАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ С МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫМ УЧАСТИЕМ «БЕРЕЧЬ И РАЗВИВАТЬ БЛАГОРОДНЫЕ ТРАДИЦИИ МЕДИЦИНЫ»: ВЕРНОСТЬ ПРОФЕССИИ В ИСТОРИИ МОЕЙ СТРАНЫ
  • Pages: 286-287
  • Section: СВЕТЯ ДРУГИМ – СГОРАЮ САМ»: ЛИЧНОСТЬ ВРАЧА В ИСТОРИИ МЕДИЦИНЫ
  • URL: https://new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/7623

Cite item

Abstract

The article deals with the discoverer, doctor, multi-talented scientist, Alexander Alexandrovich Bogdanov. He was a philosopher and economist, a writer and a politician, was fond of chess, was the editor of a new Russian translation of K. Marx's "Capital", but devoted himself entirely to blood transfusion operations and the world's first blood transfusion institute, made a great contribution to the development of medicine.

Full Text

Alexander Alexandrovich Bogdanov is a doctor, philosopher, politician and writer, an active, sincere, selflessly devoted person to his idea. At birth, Alexander Alexandrovich was given the surname - Malinovsky. He was born in 1873 in the northwestern province of the Russian Empire, in the city of Sokolka. In a working family, his father was a school teacher. He completed his studies at the Tula gymnasium with a gold medal. He began to study at Moscow University, choosing the direction of physics and mathematics. But in the end he graduated from the medical faculty of the Imperial Kharkov University. After receiving a medical degree in 1899, Alexander Bogdanov wrote the book "Basic Elements of a Historical View of Nature." Bogdanov was familiar with many prominent people of that era. The circle of his comrades included such people as N.A. Berdyaev, V.I. Lenin, G.V. Plekhanov, A.M. Bitter. Alexander Alexandrovich was a versatile person. He was interested in issues related not only to medicine, but also to the economic sphere. During the First World War, he was drafted into the army as a doctor. Since 1921, Bogdanov considered gerontological, hematological and transfusiological research to be his main business. He believed that such a method as a blood transfusion not only saves lives, but also maintains a healthy body in proper shape. All experiments were performed by the physician. The main task was to study exchange transfusion and its biological significance.

The project to create the first blood institute was proposed by Bogdanov in 1925. Soon, after the publicity of his idea, his project was approved by the Central Committee of the CPSU. A. A. Bogdanov was appointed director of the institute.

First of all, Alexander Alexandrovich is interested in the possibility of implementing the so-called exchange blood transfusion, in which each participant in the procedure is given a certain amount of blood from another participant, that is, each of them is both a donor and a recipient. The essence of the process of blood transfusion, invented by Bogdanov, was to maintain the body in proper shape.
From a medical point of view, exchange transfusion was very significant for medicine. In modern practice, this method uses blood that has already been stored in special refrigerators in advance. For a full-fledged procedure, ten to fifteen liters of donor blood are required.

Exchange transfusion is used:

for the treatment of hemolytic disease of the newborn
with intoxication,
transfusion shock,
acute renal failure.
The result is based on the removal of toxic metabolic enzymes and on the compensation of substances necessary for the body. In addition to all of the above, the internal organs of the recipient are released. Alexander Alexandrovich survived eleven blood transfusions, but, unfortunately, the twelfth was his last. The exchange transfusion took place on March 24, 1928, and involved a young student. The blood group matched, but both developed a severe transfusion reaction. An experienced doctor immediately understood the seriousness of the situation, but did not realize that the reason could be in a different Rhesus. The Rh factor was discovered only 12 years later. The scientist did not lose heart and began to keep a diary of the so-called "well-being", in which he wrote down how he feels throughout all the days, while his strength allowed. Alexander Alexandrovich, even a few days before his death, tried to serve science. On April 7, 1928, the doctor died due to Rh incompatibility. His body was cremated and his brain was donated to the Brain Institute.

Alexander Alexandrovich Bogdanov is undoubtedly a talented scientist and scientist. At present, the A. Bogdanov International Institute has been established. The educational institution unites and coordinates the development of research by Russian and foreign scientists who develop the ideas embodied in the scientific heritage of Alexander Alexandrovich Bogdanov.

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About the authors

Alexandra Valentinovna Gudilina

Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko

Email: gudilina04@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1283-2691
Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, Studentskaya St, 10

Olga Vasilievna Makhinova

Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: mahinovaolga@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1799-6361
SPIN-code: 2567-9521
Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, Studentskaya St, 10

References

  1. Богданов Александр Александрович // Большая советская энциклопедия: [в 30 т.] / под ред. А.М. Прохорова — 3-е изд. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1969.

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