• Authors: Shchegoleva V.A.1, Monakhova D.D.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky
  • Pages: 239-241
  • URL: https://new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/7618

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Abstract: Since ancient times, medicine has been an important field for a person, the importance of which increases from year to year. Many doctors known all over the world have made a huge contribution and played a big role in its development and prosperity. Among them there is a large number of those who are outstanding doctors of Russia. It was Russian doctors who began and continue to write "new chapters" in the treatment of certain pathologies to this day. Sklifosovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Botkin and many other geniuses of their profession have opened a new level of healing around the world. But there are also lesser-known doctors who have made a significant contribution to world medicine. In this article, I would like to pay attention to the personality of Ivan Pavlovich Lazarevich - little-known, but who played an important role in the development of medicine, namely in obstetrics and gynecology. In this article, using scientific and biographical sources, the authors identified and described the main activities of I.P. Lazarevich, which influenced the development of medicine. The analysis of scientific materials has shown the value of clinical, research and organizational activities of the doctor. It is concluded that the merits of outstanding figures are not always appreciated immediately and at their true worth. The study of the achievements of outstanding predecessors has important theoretical and practical significance for the formation of new generations of doctors. The purpose of the work: to study the achievements of an outstanding, but little-known to the world, Russian doctor who opened up new possibilities for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. Materials and methods: analysis of scientific and memoir literature concerning the biography of Ivan Pavlovich Lazarevich, the ways of his professional development and his contribution to science. Results: There are a significant number of areas of medicine in which doctors have made discoveries, innovations or breakthroughs in the study of diseases of a particular organ system. The famous Russian doctor Ivan Pavlovich Lazarevich made a significant contribution to the development of obstetrics and gynecology.


Full Text

I.P. Lazarevich is a Russian obstetrician-gynecologist, Doctor of Medicine and Honored professor. The future specialist, who was born on March 17, 1829, had a long and hard work in his formation. In order to decide on a profession, Ivan Pavlovich had to first enter the Faculty of Law in St. Petersburg, and only later, due to compelling life circumstances, to move and enroll in the medical faculty in Kiev. After graduating from the university in 1853, he became an assistant at the maternity hospital, and since 1854 a doctor at the Kiev Military Academy. In 1857, Ivan Pavlovich received the degree of Doctor of Medicine for his dissertation "De pelvis femineae metiendae rationibus" ("On the rational measurement of the female pelvis"). And in 1859, Ivan Pavlovich became an associate professor of the Department of Obstetrics.

At the beginning of his activity, I.P. Lazarevich sought to expand the possibilities of teaching obstetrics. Ivan Pavlovich himself said that no matter how hard he tried, he could not work miracles and graduate students prepared for obstetric practice, because he did not have the most necessary conditions for this - a well-maintained and well-equipped clinic [2]. These words are still relevant today, since many universities do not have the clinical base necessary for high-quality training of specialists of their profile. I. P. Lazarevich started working in the department with only six maternity beds, and later managed to expand the clinic to 25 beds.

Also, on the initiative of Ivan Pavlovich, in 1869, the training of midwives for the southern regions of Russia began. They studied the basics of the structure and vital activity of the human body, medical care. Then the trained women were sent to small communities, where from ancient times the role of a doctor was performed by midwives who used truly barbaric methods during childbirth.

As I.P. Lazarevich himself wrote: "Obstetrics is perhaps the most important and difficult branch of medical care."

Lazarevich used original visual aids for teaching his own pupils and colleagues, some of which he invented himself. A unique obstetric phantom can serve as a model - a special iron structure that indicates different positions of the fetus and changes during childbirth. The phantom was a metal plate with an image of a female pelvis and a movable flat figure of a baby, also made of metal. The silhouette of the baby could spin around its axis, and its head had the ability to bend and unbend. Using this model, the scientist showed his pupils how to handle the fetus in different positions, including difficult ones for childbirth. Since then and to this day, phantom exercises have been a mandatory attribute of teaching obstetrics and gynecology.

The manual "Study of the abdomen of pregnant women", created by Ivan Pavlovich, became a reference book for obstetricians of that time. It explained how an external examination makes it clear whether a woman is actually pregnant, to determine the trimester, to identify possible pathologies during gestation and difficulties of childbirth. I. P. Lazarevich designed and proposed the first model of Russian direct obstetric forceps (1865). The main flaw of the forceps that existed at that time, he considered that from-due to the excessive convergence of the spoons, a very strong compression of the fetal head could occur. In 1887 he demonstrated a new model of forceps without curvature of the pelvis with parallel spoons. The invented tool became much safer, since when using it, the pressure on the head was minimal [1]. He also designed other instruments (brephotom, fetal extraction hook, uterine sound, etc.). For his instruments and atlas of gynecological and obstetric instruments, he was awarded a gold medal at an exhibition in London (1873).

I.P. Lazarevich also touched on generic anesthesia. He focused on the mental state of a pregnant woman, studied eclampsia, being a supporter of I. Sechenov's theory about the role of reflex reactions in the life of the body.

I. P. Lazarevich published 83 scientific articles in a huge number of languages during his lifetime. In Russia, Ivan Pavlovich first introduced the study of the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system into obstetrics, which was reflected in his work "The Course of Obstetrics" (1877, 1892).

It should be noted that Ivan Pavlovich was actively engaged not only in scientific, but also in social activities. He studied the impact of hard work on the female body, the protection of motherhood and childhood, the needs of children's institutions. He reflected his views in the works "The female body in relation to work" (1881), "Women's activity (1883), "Attention to children and mothers".

Ivan Pavlovich died on February 25, 1902. He was a doctor and a scientist who made a huge contribution to the medical specialty – obstetrics and gynecology. Possessing an inquisitive mind, incredible diligence and undoubted talent, I. P. Lazarevich managed to achieve unprecedented heights and deserves worldwide recognition. His merits will forever remain in the memory of Russian and foreign doctors.


About the authors

Veronika Alexsandrovna Shchegoleva

Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky

Email: v.a.s.h@bk.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5079-0408
SPIN-code: 2397-0588
Russian Federation, 410012, Privolzhsky Federal District, Saratov Region, Saratov, st. Bolshaya Cossack, 112

Darya D. Monakhova

Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky

Author for correspondence.
Email: monakhovad28@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9592-8308
SPIN-code: 6472-4605
Russian Federation, 410012, Privolzhsky Federal District, Saratov Region, Saratov, st. Bolshaya Cossack, 112


  1. Гранат Н. Е., Малиновский Н. Н. К 125-летию акушерских щипцов И. П. Лазаревича //Акуш. и гин. - 1991. - № 3. - С. 74-77.
  2. Лазаревич И. П. Вновь усовершенствованные параллельные прямые щипцы. Журнал акушерства и женских болезней. - 1887. - Т. 1. - С. 95-101.
  3. Цвелев Ю.В., Тихонова Т.К. Заслуженный профессор Иван Павлович Лазаревич // Журнал акушерства и женских болезней. - 2002. - Т. 51. - №3. - C. 130-134. doi: 10.17816/JOWD91115

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