STUDY AND HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF THE ACTUAL NUTRITION OF STUDENTS

  • Authors: Valiulin R.I.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Tashkent Medical Academy
  • Issue: Vol 11, No 1 (2022): XVI МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ НАУЧНО-ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ МОЛОДЫХ УЧЕНЫХ-МЕДИКОВ
  • Pages: 15-16
  • Section: Результаты фундаментальных и прикладных исследований
  • URL: https://new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/7498

Cite item

Abstract

Rational nutrition is an important component for maintaining the health of every person, including students, as they constantly need to keep a high concentration of attention and efficiency. Recent statistical investigations show that diseases provoked by disturbed nutrition tend to increase. Purpose: to research and comparatively evaluate the actual nutrition of students, using the examples of high education institutions in Uzbekistan and Russia. Methods: to study the problem was created the questionnaire, including questions that allow to determine the quality of nutrition and the regimen of students. 206 students from Russia (101) and Uzbekistan (105) were interviewed. Results: an analysis of the received responses shows that almost all students in both countries have poor-quality and unbalanced nutrition. There are also certain differences in some aspects of nutrition among students from different countries, mainly due to geographical location, cultural features and differences in the educational process. It was determined that due to disturbed nutrition, students can be at risk of developing diseases of the digestive system and other nutrition-related diseases. Conclusion: measures are needed that will help in solving this problem and will help prevent the increase in diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract, not only among students, but also among the entire population. Scientific novelty lies in the comparison of the data obtained from students of universities in the two countries, which allows a more comprehensive assessment of the problem of food hygiene.

Full Text

The relevance of research. Nutrition is one of the most important processes in human life, because food is a source of energy necessary for the operation of all organ systems, and substances for the normal functioning of the body, such as vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and mineral compounds. Therefore, the quality of nutrition affects the health of people, their well-being and even the rate of aging. Rational nutrition is important for everyone, including students, as they constantly need to maintain high concentration and efficiency. But it is difficult for students to maintain proper nutrition due to lack of time and a large study load.

Currently, in order to preserve the productive power of society, the priority task is to strengthen the physical and mental health of young people. At the same time, nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting health. Rational nutrition of students is one of the necessary conditions for ensuring health, effective learning, maintaining efficiency, resistance to infectious, environmental and stress factors.

The student's health is the most important basis for his future. The organization of rational nutrition of students during their studies at the university is one of the most important factors in maintaining their health and the effectiveness of education. Studying the attitude of students to the issue of nutrition is an important direction in the formation of young people's value orientations towards maintaining their own health through optimal nutrition, developing students' self-awareness in the field of healthy nutrition, improving the quality of life and education of students, as well as reducing the number of alimentary-dependent diseases among young people.

Everyone knows that malnutrition leaves negative consequences for the body and is the cause of many diseases. According to statistical data, in the period for 2007-2017 in Uzbekistan, the number of diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract increased by 22.4% and began to amount to 3.5 million people.

According to some studies in countries with developed statistics, 80-90% of people suffer from chronic gastritis; 7-14% has peptic ulcer; 50% has gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); 40-81% constantly experience heartburn.

According to WHO, in most countries the percentage of the population with overweight is more than 40%. Excess weight leads to disorders of the cardiovascular system, hormonal disorders, pathologies of the musculoskeletal system and many others. Thus, in 2019, 1.5 million people died due to diabetes, and this disease entered the top ten most common causes of death. There are 126 million people in 2020 had coronary heart disease and also it had been the cause of 16% of deaths.

Purpose of the study. To study, evaluate and compare the nutrition of students, using the examples of higher educational institutions in Uzbekistan (RUz) and Russia (RF).

Materials and methods. Was created an online form of the questionnaire, including questions that allow to determine the quality of nutrition. Data were obtained from 206 students (101 from Russia, 105 from Uzbekistan), aged 18-25 years. Next, a statistical analysis was carried out.

Results and discussion. After the survey, it was found that almost all students note changes in the quality of nutrition since the start of their studies (100% in Russia, 90-95% in Uzbekistan). This confirms that students are at risk of being prone to disorders associated with the gastrointestinal tract.

The frequency of eating, which is one of the important components of rational nutrition, is disturbed in most students. According to the results of the survey, 77% of students in Russia, 62% in Uzbekistan have a full meal (hot, main dishes, etc.) only 1-2 times a day.

It can be assumed that students could make up for missed meals in the canteens of their institutions, but about 50% of students do not eat in canteens, of which 30% in Russia and 39% in Uzbekistan prefer other places to eat.

To clarify the reasons for the low popularity of canteens, to the respondents were offered several answers: the problem is in the taste of food; lack of variety; lack of space in the canteens; expensive; there is no reason, everything is fine. The first reason for this is the lack of space in canteens (noted 77 times), the next is the lack of variety of food (65), then the bad taste (54) and the high price (32). Students who are satisfied with everything – 62.

It follows that students are forced to snack on less healthy food. Thus, almost every day, 50% of students eat “snacks” (cookies, chips, crackers, sweets, etc.), and those students who prefer canteens to other establishments choose fast food in 70% of cases, we have witnessed that similar the results were in the work of other researchers.

A question was also asked about the evening meal. The following answers were received: in Uzbekistan, as in Russia, approximately 52% of students have a meal less than 2 hours before bedtime. Such indicators can be explained by the employment of students after graduation (work, clubs, additional classes, etc.), such students make up 60%. Frequent eating before bedtime has a bad effect on the general condition of a person and the condition of the gastrointestinal tract.

During the analyzing the quality of nutrition of students, several basic foodstuffs and the regularity of their use (every day and every other day) were identified. Meat is eaten on average by only 45% of respondents, most of all meat is eaten by students in Uzbekistan (54%). It should be noted that ungulate meat is much more popular than bird meat. Only 41% of respondents regularly have milk and dairy products in their diet. In Uzbekistan, such products are less popular than in Russia, by 12%. Cereals are eaten only by 39% of the respondents. In Russia, grains are eaten more, but not by much (about 5%). Only 22% of students eat fish and seafood, rich in substances necessary for the body, at least once a week, while approximately 14% do not eat this at all. In Uzbekistan, this kind of food is consumed less by 15-20%. 39% (in Russia) and 57% (in Uzbekistan) of students have fruits and vegetables every day in their diet. In Russia, fruits and vegetables in the diet are 10-20% less.

According to the obtained data, it can be seen that the nutrition of students is unbalanced, which can influence on their condition. 90 respondents claim that they observe changes in weight, most of them - a set of excess mass; 70 respondents notice gastrointestinal disorders (heartburn, flatulence, heaviness, and others); 58 observe signs of a deficiency of vitamins and microelements.

Conclusions. Students clearly have a disturbed diet. Canteens are not very popular among students. Some types of food are not readily available for regular consumption. The workload of students affects the quality of food.

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About the authors

Rashid Ildarovich Valiulin

Tashkent Medical Academy

Author for correspondence.
Email: rashidvaliulin@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5608-9321
Uzbekistan

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