DR. RENÉ-THÉOPHILE-HYACINTHE LAЁNNEC: – AN OUTSTANDING PHYSICIAN AND SCIENTIST

  • Authors: Yakovenko N.S.1, Varnavskaya E.V.1, Azizi R.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
  • Issue: Vol 10 (2021): IV ВСЕРОССИЙСКАЯ СТУДЕНЧЕСКАЯ НАУЧНАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ С МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫМ УЧАСТИЕМ «БЕРЕЧЬ И РАЗВИВАТЬ БЛАГОРОДНЫЕ ТРАДИЦИИ МЕДИЦИНЫ»: ВЕРНОСТЬ ПРОФЕССИИ В ИСТОРИИ МОЕЙ СТРАНЫ
  • Pages: 241-242
  • Section: СВЕТЯ ДРУГИМ – СГОРАЮ САМ»: ЛИЧНОСТЬ ВРАЧА В ИСТОРИИ МЕДИЦИНЫ
  • URL: https://new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/6841

Cite item

Abstract

The problem of medical terms with proper names is relevant for modern doctors and medical professionals. The article examines medical terms that got their name from the famous physician and scientist Dr. Rene Laёnneck. The purpose of this article is to trace the emergence of new medical terms based on the medical discoveries of Dr. Rene Laёnneck. This article highlights the principal moments of his biography and is especially interesting for those who are about to become a doctor or are interested in the history of medicine.

Full Text

Relevance. The problem of medical terms with proper names is relevant for modern doctors and medical professionals. The article examines medical terms that got their name from the famous physician and scientist Dr. Rene Laёnnec. The purpose of this article is to trace the emergence of new medical terms based on the medical discoveries of Dr. Rene Laёnnec. This article highlights the principal moments of his biography and is especially interesting for those who are about to become a doctor or are interested in the history of medicine.

The research objective. The main goal of the article is to acquaint students with medical terms based on the discoveries of Rene-Laёnnec.

Methods. The design of research is observational and historical study. We use an ecological approach actualizing the relationship between the appropriate culture and the idea of professional know ledge continuity [1].

The Results and Discussion. René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laёnnec: was born in February 1781 and died in August 1826. He was a French musician and doctor. His expertise of cutting wooden flutes drove him to create in 1816 the stethoscope when he was working at Necker Hospital. He spearheaded its utilization in diagnosing different chest conditions. René turned into a speaker in 1822 at the Collège de France and educator of medication in 1823. His last arrangements were that of top of the clinical center at the Hôpital de la Charité and educator at the Collège de France. René died at 45 years old of tuberculosis. He was born in Brittany especially in Quimper. His mother passed way of tuberculosis when René was five years of age, then he lived with his uncle the Abbé Laёnnec who was working at the university at a faculty of medicine. At the age of twelve, he continued to Nantes. Laёnnec was a skilled understudy and a smart student.

His father was a lawyer, and he deterred him later from proceeding as a specialist and René at that point had a timeframe where he went for long strolls in the nation, moved, contemplated Greek and composed verse. Notwithstanding, in 1799 he got back to study. Laennec considered medication at the University of Paris. He was prepared to utilize sound as an analytic guide. During the French Revolution, Corvisart supported the re-presentation of percussion. René graduated in 1804 and proceeded with his research and examination in the Medicine school in Paris. During the Napoleonic Wars, he assumed responsibility for the wards in the Salpêtrière Hospital, which was held for injured fighters. Laёnnec was designated as doctor in 1816 at the Hospital of Necker in Paris, where he built up the stethoscope, which is now used in medicine.

Let's consider terms related to his name. Firstly, we’ll start with the stethoscope. Laënnec's unique stethoscope configuration comprised of an empty container of wood of about 25 cm long and a diameter of 3.5, communicating sound to ears. It very well may be effortlessly reassembled and disassembled, and it utilized a unique attachment to work with the transmission of sounds from the patient's lungs and heart. Laënnec published in 1819 the principal discourse on an assorrtment of lungs and heart sounds that are heard through the stethoscope.   He is viewed as the dad of clinical auscultation; he also composed the principal portrayals of cirrhosis and bronchiectasis and furthermore grouped aspiratory conditions like pleurisy pneumonia, bronchiectasis, emphysema, phthisis, pneumothorax, and several lung diseases.

Secondly: Laënnec's cirrhosis. Laёnnec's cirrhosis, also known as portal cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, fatty cirrhosis or atrophic cirrhosis, owes its name to René Laёnnec. It is a liver disease in which the normal lobular architecture is lost, with fibrosis (scarring) and later nodular regeneration. Laennec's cirrhosis can be associated with inflammatory arthritis, most commonly affecting the shoulders, elbows and knees. Osteoporosis, soft tissue swelling in peripheral joints, and sometimes-calcifying periathritis is observed. In developed countries, Laёnnec's cirrhosis most commonly affects middle-aged men, usually between the ages of 40 and 60. It is the most common form of cirrhosis in the United States. Chronic alcoholism can cause Laёnnec's cirrhosis.

The third eponym is Laënnec's pearls. The Pearl Index is a statistical tool used in clinical trials to measure the effectiveness of contraceptive methods. It is calculated by dividing the average number of unintended pregnancies by the number of months of use of a particular method of contraception whose effectiveness is to be measured and multiplying the result by 1,200. This corresponds to the number of pregnancies observed. Per 100 women using or whose partner uses a given contraception during one year.

Next on, Laёnnec made a significant contribution to the development of medical terminology. He began to use the new term «melanoma» and described the metastases of melanoma to the lungs. In 1804, while still a medical student, he was the first to give a lecture on melanoma. This lecture was subsequently published in 1805. Laennec actually used the term «melanosis», which he got from the Greek (mela, melan) meaning black.

It should be noted that a street and metro station in Lyon is named after Laёnnec.

Conclusion. Thus, Dr. Rene-Théophile-Hyacinth Laennec was the progenitor of several medical terms - eponyms and ergonyms, which received their names from the own name of this outstanding physician [2, 3, 4]. We believe that acquaintance with medical eponymous terms is very useful for future doctors.

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About the authors

N. S. Yakovenko

Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko

Email: for-lang.vsma_snk@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3493-5950
Russian Federation, 394036, Россия, Воронеж, ул. Студенческая, 10

E. V. Varnavskaya

Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko

Email: for-lang.vsma_snk@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7326-4045
Russian Federation, 394036, Россия, Воронеж, ул. Студенческая, 10

R. Azizi

Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: for-lang.vsma_snk@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7210-631X
Russian Federation, 394036, Россия, Воронеж, ул. Студенческая, 10

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  4. Izotova, V. A. Analysis of ergonyms of women's clothing stores in Kirov / V. A. Izotova, A. V. Korotkova // Crede Experto: Transport, Society, Education, Language. – 2019. – No 2. – P. 262-270.

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