PUBLIC HEALTH AT THE CONTEMPORARY STAGE: FAMILY INSTITUTE WITH THE EYES OF THE PEDIATRIC FACULTY


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Abstract

Relevance. Currently, as argued in the research literature, there is a rejection of the old, traditional (patriarchal) model of the family, where the head is a man. In this model, there is a particular hierarchical sequence of "father - mother - children". Today's young families are undergoing a transition from the old model to a newer, "transitional" model, which has completely different values. In this model, the equality of all family members prevails, and the importance of the personal opinions of each of them, even of the children, is emphasized. On the other hand, it cannot be said that human relationships themselves have undergone some changes - they have not. People are still subject to feelings, they still love their parents, their partner, their children. The modern family model has only brought a more pronounced emotional component and mutual support for each other.

Objective. To study attitudes towards family, family life of different age groups of pediatric faculty.

Methods: statistical analysis, descriptive, also using Google Forms platform 1800 students of pediatric faculty, as well as 150 young specialist doctors were surveyed. An oral survey was used to obtain the opinions of 50 faculty and staff members.

Results. Opinions of different age and professional groups (students, professionals, and educators) were obtained and analyzed during the study. However, the similarity of views of most respondents regardless of age and other social factors is noted.

Conclusion. Nothing stands still in the modern world, and the institution of the family is also changing. Many people are increasingly abandoning the traditional family structure towards more equality in terms of sharing family responsibilities and raising children. Even so, many things remain important and unchanged, such as the importance and significance of formal marriage.

Full Text

RELEVANCE

One of the most important social institutions is considered to be the institution of family and marriage. This circumstance is not accidental. The family, being an integral element of society, ensures its vital activity and normal functioning, which is why the study of the attitude of the modern generation to the institution of the family, its constantly changing trends to change, the difference of views between generations on the role of the union of men and women is an extremely important and urgent problem.

For the first time, serious works devoted to the family as a social phenomenon appeared in the XX century in the works of such scientists as G. Christensen ("Anthology on Marriage and Family", 1967) and W. Good ("World Revolution and images of the family", 1967). Currently, this issue is being addressed by such researchers as N. A. Orlova ("Development of the personality of adolescents in various types of families", 2011) and T. A. Gurko ("Marriage and Parenthood in

Russia") [1, 2, 6], those who agree with the opinion that the institution of the family is undergoing serious changes today more than ever.

Due to the acceleration of the development of society, a fairly wide range of models of family, marriage, and relationships has appeared [5]. There is no doubt that the institution of the family is currently undergoing a major transformation, not only in progressive European countries, but also in Russia. This can be seen by looking at a certain cross - section of society-young people who are currently distinguished by a variety of views and personal opinions. Unlike previous generations, today's young people are of the opinion that the traditional family model has already exhausted its possibilities and has been replaced by another, modern one [3]. In the first place, young people have the opportunity for professional growth and personal realization, and this desire is equally inherent in both boys and girls. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, we can now observe a crisis in the social institution of the family, as the number of unregistered marriages, referred to as "civil marriage", increases with each decade [4]. Young couples began to organize a joint life more and more often, not seeing the need to formalize their relationship at the legislative level.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

In this paper, an attempt is made to find out and summarize the opinion of students of the Faculty of Pediatrics from the 1st to the 6th year, as well as to collect and analyze the point of view of young specialists – pediatricians and teachers of the Faculty of Pediatrics, their views on the rapidly changing institution of the family.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted using a Google Form, sociological surveys were conducted depending on the type of occupation (student, specialist, teacher) and the main trends of the family as a social institution were identified, according to respondents [3, 4], including faculty employees.

THE RESULTS OBTAINED

The study involved three age groups of the Faculty of Pediatrics: students of 1-6 courses, young specialists (residents and practitioners) and teachers. This division allowed us to look from the outside at the similarity or difference of opinions of certain age groups. It should be noted that the pediatric faculty was chosen purposefully, because, as a rule, students of the pediatric faculty are a little more sensitive to children and to family relations in general, because this is part of their future or present work.

Part 1 – "students of 1-6 courses".

First, let's look at the results of the survey for students of 1-6 courses. The number of respondents was 180. Most of the respondents were female (80.6%). The age of the respondents varies from 17 to 24 years, most of them were 19-year-old and 20-year-old survey participants (2-3 years).

Students were asked to answer 12 questions related to the research topic. As a result, the following data were obtained: 80.6% of respondents grew up in a full-fledged family, and only 19.4% shared that their family is incomplete, that is, there are no one or both parents. Most of the respondents (69.1%) noted that important decisions are made jointly in the family, 22.5 % expressed the mother's primacy and only 6.7% recognized the father's complete primacy in making decisive decisions. Based on this, it can be concluded that modern families are moving further away from traditional (patriarchal or matriarchal) family relations.

The next question concerned the distribution of family responsibilities in the parents ' family. During the analysis of the results, it turned out that the majority of household chores still lie with the woman, that is, with the mother (83.6%). Other responses were varied: father, sharing household chores, grandmother, aunt, stepmother, children.

When asked: "What do you think your family is like", most of the respondents came to the conclusion that their family is rather modern (63.8%)

As it turned out, 97.8% of respondents are not married, and only 2.2% are in a legal relationship. None of the respondents (students) have children. However, 89.9% would like to have a child in the future. 79.3% of students said that the relationship should be formalized at the legislative level. The remaining 20.7% do not consider it necessary. To the question "What is the optimal age for marriage in your opinion?» the respondents could not give a clear answer. The average figure ranges from 20 to 30 years. When asked about the distribution of household responsibilities directly in the current (or planned) family of students, the majority noted an even distribution depending on the situation. However, 8.9% still believe that household chores should be left to the woman. The respondents also hold progressive views about the upbringing of children. 95% believe that a child should be raised by a family together. The remaining part was divided into two opinions-some adhere to the fact that the child should be raised by the father, others-by the mother.

Most of the respondents (students) (64.8%) would like a family with a similar lifestyle of their parents, but would change some points. 27.8% of the survey participants would like a family completely different from the one that their parents had. And only 7.4% of those who voted would like to completely repeat the experience of their parents.

To the question "Do I need to allow the child everything or do I need to restrict it in some situations (smoking, alcohol, academic performance control)?" 86.5% of students believe that children need to be restricted in some way for the purpose of education.

Part 2 – "young professionals".

The study involved 15 young pediatricians. They were asked the same questions, but the answers were already based on the received medical practice. According to novice doctors, they are more likely to meet children from full families. 46.7% of respondents believe that families who adhere to traditional views come to their reception, 33.3% believe that they are modern, and the remaining 20% find it difficult to answer this question. To the question "Has your view of the image of the family changed in your head after the start of medical activity?" all the participants answered in the negative.

In general, the answers of young specialists were similar to those given by students of 1-6 courses. The difference is that 20% of the respondents already have children and 60% are married.

Part 3 - "teachers of the pediatric faculty".

The group of respondents – 5 people, all of whom are teachers of the pediatric faculty. Among them - all women, all age groups (from 26 to 72 years). During the survey, several key questions were answered. For example, which families, in the opinion of teachers, are more correct – traditional (patriarchal or matriarchal structure) or modified, more modern (based on the equality of spouses). The majority (60%) voted for equal family relations.

Also, the question was asked about whether it is possible to create a family while studying at a medical university? Most respondents believe that yes, it is possible. On the question: "Does the family interfere with the educational process at the medical university?" opinions were divided. 60% said that yes, it does. 20% - for what does not interfere, and the same 20% - depending on the family. And the final questions were about the optimal age for marriage and childbearing. According to teachers, the most suitable age for starting a family is from 24-25 years (60% of respondents). 20% - said that there is no optimal age, as such, there are only optimal conditions.

DISCUSSION.

Thus, as a result of the analysis of the results of the survey of students and teachers of the Faculty of Pediatrics, as well as young pediatricians, we can come to the following conclusions:

1. There is a tendency to develop the institution of the family from the traditional way of life (patriarchy/matriarchy) to a transitional, modern, based on the equality of both spouses. This point of view was supported by both the respondents-students, as well as the teaching staff and young doctors.

2. It is important to note that the students of the Faculty of Pediatrics expressed their approval in favor of registering marriages. And also the fact that in the future, the majority of respondents would like a family similar to the union of parents, which is an indicator of a certain continuity of generations.

3. According to novice doctors, based on medical experience, in Russia, after all, most families still adhere to the traditional, patriarchal way of life, in which the head of the family is a man.

CONCLUSION

The institution of the family is currently undergoing a number of changes and is in a transitional form. In modern families, there is more equality, there is a tendency to more conscious marriage and the creation of offspring. Students, young specialists and senior teachers of the Faculty of Pediatrics – an abstract group, directly by virtue of the profession, related to the institutions of family, marriage and childhood.

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About the authors

Olga Kiyatkina

Воронежский государственный медицинский университет имени Н.Н. Бурденко

Email: mossulum@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1334-258X
Russian Federation

Viktoriya Scherbakova

Воронежский государственный медицинский университет имени Н.Н. Бурденко

Author for correspondence.
Email: Vik224sher@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0410-4355

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