EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MORBIDITY, METHODS OF CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF COVIND-2019


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Abstract

Annotation.
Relevance: To date, people have witnessed three deadly pandemics in the twenty-first century associated with new coronaviruses: SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. All of these viruses that cause acute respiratory tract infections are highly contagious in nature and cause high mortality. The newly emerging COVID-19 disease is a highly transmissible viral infection caused by another new zoonotic coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). SARS-COV-2 originated from bats that serve as an established reservoir. It is still unknown how the virus is transmitted from bats to humans, rapid transmission of the virus from person to person has been confirmed. The disease first appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the world infecting 48,539,872 people and causing 1,232,791 deaths in 215 countries, and at the moment the infection is still spreading. For effective methods of combating this infection, it is important to understand the source of the infection, the ways of transmission, how many people suffer from severe and mild forms, whether there are risk groups, whether immunity develops in a viral disease, and whether the fight really reduces the prevalence of the disease. All these questions are of interest to everyone.
Objective: To identify risk groups and study the spread of the disease among different age groups of individuals for effective prevention and control of coronavirus infection.
Methods: The analysis of the features of the distribution of coronavirus infection in the territory of the Voronezh region based on the data of statistical reporting forms was carried out.
Results: According to operational data, 60.071 cases of new coronavirus infection were registered in the Voronezh Region as of 05.02.2021. The incidence rate is 2580.57 cases per 100 thousand of the population. The percentage of diseased population groups: Children up to 1 year sick 0.15% of cases, Children aged 7 to 14 years have 3.2% of cases, Persons from 18 to 29 years sick in 10.1% of cases, Persons 30 to 49 years sick in 36.3% of cases, persons from 50 to 64 years in 30.6% of cases, Persons older than 65 years in 16.1% of cases. It can also be said that infection in the family hearth occurs in 34.3% of cases.
Conclusion: According to the above data, it can be concluded that the working class of people from 30 to 49 years old are more ill, to reduce the spread of coronavirus infection, a number of preventive measures must be observed: such as maintaining social distance, separating crowded groups, wearing masks in public places, etc. The infection is quite new, and therefore has not yet been fully studied.

Full Text

Relevance.
Coronaviruses are a large family of complex viruses that have unsegmented single-stranded positive RNA. These viruses affect animals and humans, causing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and liver disorders. Coronaviruses in humans were first isolated in 1965 by D. Tyrell and M. Bynoe. In 2002, the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) SARS-CoV was reported in Guangdong Province, China, and infected more than 8,000 people. The disease was characterized by high mortality. The second epidemiologically significant coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), was discovered in 2012 and also caused pneumonia in patients. The disease was characterized by a high mortality rate (35-37%). Both infections were of zoonotic origin and were associated with bat viruses. I consider civet to be the intermediate host of SARS-CoV, and I consider camels to be the host of MERS-CoV. In December 2019, a beta-coronavirus was detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, which was named "New Coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV)"by the WHO on January 12, 2020. On February 11, 2020, the new coronavirus was renamed SARS-CoV-2 by an international committee research group. SARS-CoV-2 has a 79% structure identity with SARS-CoV [1].
The incubation period is from 2 to 14 days with an average duration of symptoms of about 5 days. The clinical picture of the disease varies from asymptomatic to severe cases. After discharge, some patients are still virus carriers, which is confirmed by positive results of laboratory tests. Some patients have a relapse of the disease, so some patients do not develop an immune response sufficient to eliminate the virus. This may mean that vaccination may not be effective for a certain group of people [2].

Goal.
To analyze the clinical and epidemiological situation of coronavirus infection in the city of Voronezh. Identify risk groups and study the spread among different age groups of individuals for effective prevention and control of coronavirus infection.

Methods.
During the work, a comprehensive epidemiological method was used using a retrospective and operational epidemiological analysis, which included a dynamic assessment of the state and the trend of the development of the epidemiological process.
The analysis of the features of the distribution of coronavirus infection in the territory of the Voronezh region based on the data of statistical reporting forms is carried out.
The dynamics of the development of the disease and the lethality of the disease were analyzed.
Risk groups were identified among population groups.

Results.
The new coronavirus infection is the most important pandemic of the 21st century, which requires detailed study. According to operational data, 60.071 cases of new coronavirus infection were registered in the Voronezh Region on 05.02.2021. The incidence rate is 2580.57 cases per 100 thousand of the population. Of the registered population, 54.9% are working people. Of these, 9.2% are people working in offices, and 8.7 % are people working in industrial enterprises. The clinical manifestations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are: Increased body temperature b, difficulty breathing, cough b, decreased senses of taste and smell, shortness of breath, muscle pain, possibly diarrhea. The incubation period is from 2 to 14 days, with an average of 5-7 days.
According to the age and gender composition, the following can be said: The percentage of sick men is 38.9, the percentage of sick women is 61.1.
Children under the age of 1 year get sick in 0.15% of cases, Children aged 7 to 14 years get sick in 3.2% of cases, People from 18 to 29 years get sick in 10.1% of cases, People from 30 to 49 years get sick in 36.3% of cases, people from 50 to 64 years in 30.6% of cases, People over 65 years in 16.1% of cases. It can also be said that infection in the family hearth occurs in 34.3% of cases.

Discussion.
The conducted studies have shown the incidence among population groups, the peculiarity of the course, the problems in the implementation of the system of prevention of new coronavirus infection. One of the reasons is the negative attitude towards vaccination. Do not isolate the patient before and after vaccination, excluding contact with the virus carrier and the sick person. Re-infection of a person, indicating that the immune system in this infection is not stable and does not remain for more than 2-3 months. Several reasons for the negative attitude of people to the vaccine are: low awareness of people about the effectiveness, incorrect communication of this information about vaccination to the world, an unproven scheme for vaccinating people with the exception of contact vaccinated with a sick person, fear of complications that may occur in risk groups.

Conclusion.
According to the data of the conducted studies, it is possible to determine the main principles, the implementation of which will make a certain contribution to the prevention of the incidence of COVID-2019 in the Voronezh region:
1. To raise awareness of the population, taking into account all methods and methods, using modern information resources.
2. Preventive measures should be carried out throughout the year in order to create an immune cushion for the population during the year, taking into account seasonal diseases such as influenza and SARS.
It is advisable to inform the population among the population groups that have a high epidemic significance: workers of industrial enterprises, crowded collectives.

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About the authors

Zakhar Vrakov

Author for correspondence.
Email: Tornado_z@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2924-9649
Russian Federation

Victoria Yaglo

Email: Victoriayaglo.vic.ru@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7909-1838

References

  1. Жмеренецкий К.В., Сазонова Е.Н. Воронина Н.В. и т.д. Только научные факты / Дальневосточный медицинский журнал. 2020 г. стр 5-22.
  2. Бевова М.Р., Нетесов С.В, Аульченко Ю.С., Новая коронавирусная инфекция / Молекулярная генетика, микробиология и вирусология 2020 г. стр. 51-58.

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