Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov - Russian surgeon, organizer of military health care. To the 165th birthday anniversary.

  • Authors: Abasov A.R.1, Ostroushko A.P.2, Andreev A.A1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко
    2. N. N. Burdenko Voronezh State Medical University
  • Issue: Vol 10, No 1 (2021): Материалы XIV Международного хирургического форума «ИННОВАЦИОННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В ХИРУРГИИ»
  • Pages: 4-5
  • Section: ХИРУРГИЯ
  • URL: https://new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/6456

Cite item

Abstract

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov - the largest domestic surgeon, lieutenant general, privy councilor (1916), honorary life surgeon of the imperial court, doctor of medicine, professor, academician.
Purpose. The purpose of the presented article is to describe the role of N.A. Velyaminov in the development of military field surgery and domestic medical printing.
Methods. Using the literature used, the key stages of the development of the medical career of Nikolai Alexandrovich are described. Particular emphasis in the publication is placed on his court position as a physician and a person close to the imperial family. Results The analysis of the biography of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov confirms his important role in the development of domestic medicine, in particular, military field surgery. "Velyaminov's surgical archive", which was later renamed into "Bulletin of surgery of I.I. Grekov ”is still being published, and its editorial board is made up of professors, academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Conclusions During his life N.A. Velyaminov managed to bring many innovations to surgery. The development of some principles of medical triage of wounded soldiers, participation in the work of the Red Cross society, the position of a doctor at the imperial court, participation in the main domestic military events, the development of a scientific medical journal and many other merits of Velyaminov allow us to conclude about his important role in domestic medicine in general.

Full Text

Relevance. The article is dedicated to the 165th anniversary of the birth of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov, the largest Russian surgeon and leader of military surgery. Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov - domestic surgeon, lieutenant general, privy councilor (1916), honorary life surgeon at the imperial court, doctor of medicine, professor, academician, who made a huge contribution to the formation of scientific medical printing house in Russia.

Purpose of the study. First of all, the publication aims at revealing the role of N.A. Velyaminov as a participant in the Russian-Turkish (1877-1878), Russian-Japanese (1904-1905) and World War I (1914-1918) wars. Particular attention is paid to the importance of N.A. Velyaminov as the founder of the surgical seal in Russia.

Materials and methods. The author studied the monograph of Georgy Mikhailovich Velyaminov, professor at the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which describes in detail the history of thirty-five generations of the Velyaminov family [1]. In addition, to assess the role of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov as the founder of the surgical press, an analysis of domestic publications was carried out [2, 3, 4].

Results. H.A. Velyaminov was born on February 15, 1855 in St. Petersburg in the family of an officer of the Preobrazhensky Life Guards Regiment A.N. Velyaminov. He spent his childhood in Germany, where he received his primary education in the gymnasiums of Wiesbaden. In 1872 he entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at the Imperial Moscow University, but in 1873 he transferred to the Faculty of Medicine.
After graduating from the university, N.A. Velyaminov decided to be an intern at the military hospital in Tiflis and in 1877 went to the active army in the Caucasus, where he was assigned to the military surgeon Karl Karlovich Reyer. In 1880 N.A. Velyaminov participated in campaigns to Turkmenistan, where during the Akhal-Teke expedition and during the capture of Geok-Tepe he successfully applied the antiseptic method of treating wounds, there he also developed methods and principles of medical triage for further evacuation of the wounded, personally participated in the treatment of cholera patients during an epidemic [2]. The experience of a field doctor allowed him to work for some time as a consultant surgeon at the Krasnoselsky military hospital, where he was noticed by Emperor Alexander III. In general, it was the events of 1877-1882. strongly influenced Velyaminov's further career, especially his formation as a life doctor.
In 1884 N.A. Velyaminov begins to work as an assistant to the head physician of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross community of sisters of mercy and begins independent surgical work. In 1885, under the editorship of Velyaminov, the first domestic medical scientific journal "Velyaminov's surgical archive" was published, where he also assumed the role of publisher and proofreader. The magazine existed until 1917. After the revolution in Leningrad, as a continuation of the "Velyaminov's surgical archive", the journal "Bulletin of surgery of I.I. Grekov "[4]. In 1885, Nikolai Alexandrovich received the title of honorary life surgeon and was enrolled in the Tsar's military retinue, which was a special honor for the doctor. In 1889, after defending his thesis "On rectal exfoliation with preliminary or simultaneous colotomy according to Schinziger-Madelung", Velyaminov was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Since 1893, he headed the Maximilian Clinic in St. Petersburg.
At the end of September 1894 N.A. Velyaminov was in the Livadia Palace, near the bed of the dying Emperor Alexander III. All the events that took place at this time and all the complexities of the Emperor's illness, Velyaminov could reflect in "Memories of the Emperor Alexander III, his illness and death" [3]. In the same year N.A. Velyaminov received the title of professor at the Imperial Military Medical Academy, honorary surgeon of the Imperial court, and then senior physician of the Imperial headquarters. On March 19, 1899, on his initiative, the first ambulance station in St. Petersburg was opened.
Nikolai Alexandrovich took part in hostilities in China in 1900, as well as in the Russian-Japanese war. In 1900, Velyaminov was elected an honorary member of the Royal College of Surgeons in England. In 1905, he was awarded the rank of Privy Councilor, and two years later he was awarded the Imperial Order of St. Anne, 1st degree. By order of the military department on November 21, 1910 N.A. Velyaminov was appointed head of the Imperial Military Medical Academy. He held this position until December 18, 1912. In 1913, at a conference of the Military Medical Academy, he was elected an academician of medical sciences.
During the First World War N.A. Velyaminov performed the functions of a consultant to assist military doctors and inspect surgical cases, and took an active part in the work of the management of the Russian Red Cross Society.
After the revolution, the events of which tragically affected the life of Nikolai Aleksandrovich, he stopped working as a practicing doctor and left an extensive, unpublished memoir “Meetings and Acquaintances. Memories." and devoted himself entirely to the medical scientific literature.

Left after the events of 1917 without his apartment, the professor was forced to live in a small room allocated to him in the St. Petersburg hospital.
During his life, Nikolai Alexandrovich wrote many works devoted to medicine. In his works, he raised the problem of disinfecting combat wounds, military surgery, studied joint diseases and oncological diseases.
On April 9, 1920, at the age of 65, N.A. Velyaminov died as a result of a heart attack. He was buried at the Volkovskoye cemetery, like his grandfather, father and uncle. On his grave, the editors of the "New Surgical Archives" erected a monument as a tribute to the outstanding domestic life-surgeon, and a portrait of N.A. Velyaminov by I. Repin.

Discussion. The analysis of the biography of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov confirms his important role in the development of domestic medicine, in particular, military field surgery. "Velyaminov's surgical archive", which was later renamed into "Bulletin of surgery of I.I. Grekov ”is still being published, and its editorial board is made up of professors, academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Conclusion. During his life, Nikolai Aleksandrovich Velyaminov managed to leave a significant mark on the history of Russian surgery. The development of some principles of medical triage of wounded soldiers, participation in the work of the Red Cross society, the position of a doctor at the imperial court, participation in the main domestic military events, the development of a scientific medical journal and many other merits of Velyaminov allow us to conclude about his important role in domestic medicine in general.

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About the authors

Asadula Raufovich Abasov

Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко

Author for correspondence.
Email: asadula_abasov@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2135-6906
SPIN-code: 5422-1412
Russian Federation

Anton Petrovich Ostroushko

N. N. Burdenko Voronezh State Medical University

Email: antonostroushko@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3656-5954
SPIN-code: 9811-2385

associate Professor of General surgery

Russian Federation, Voronezh, Russia

Alexander A Andreev

Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко

Email: sugery@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5242-6105
SPIN-code: 1394-5147

д.м.н., профессор кафедры общей хирургии

Russian Federation, г. Воронеж, ул. Студенческая, 10

References

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  2. Шевченко Ю.Л., Карпов О.Э., Матвеев С.А., и др. НИКОЛАЙ АЛЕКСАНДРОВИЧ ВЕЛЬЯМИНОВ – ОСНОВАТЕЛЬ РУССКОЙ ХИРУРГИЧЕСКОЙ ПЕЧАТИ (К 160 –ЛЕТИЮ СО ДНЯ РОЖДЕНИЯ)// Вестник Национального медико-хирургического центра им. Н.И.Пирогова – 2015. –Т.10 №4 – С. 9-12 [Shevchenko Yu.L., Karpov O.E., Matveev S.A. and etc. NIKOLAY ALEXANDROVICH VELYAMINOV - FOUNDER OF THE RUSSIAN SURGICAL PRINTING (TO THE 160th ANNIVERSARY FROM BIRTHDAY)// Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy // Vestnik Natsionalnogo medico-khirurgicheskogo centra im. N.I. Pirogova. – 2015;(4): 9-12 (in Russ).]
  3. Будко А.А., Ивановский Ю.В. Н.А. ВЕЛЬЯМИНОВ – ХИРУРГ, ОРГАНИЗАТОР И ИСТОРИК МЕДИЦИНЫ (К 100-ЛЕТИЮ НАЧАЛА ПЕРВОЙ МИРОВОЙ ВОЙНЫ) // Вестник российской военно-медицинской академии – 2013. – №4 – С.252-257 [Budko A.A., Ivanovskiy Yu.V. ON. VELYAMINOV - SURGEON, ORGANIZER AND HISTORIAN OF MEDICINE (TO THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR) // Vestnik rossiyskoy voenno-medicinskoy akademii– 2013;(4): 252-257 (in Russ).]
  4. Багненко С. Ф., Лазарев С. М. Н. А. Вельяминов – хирург, организатор здравоохранения и основатель первого в России хирургического журнала (1855–1920) (к 135-летию журнала «Вестник хирургии им. И. И. Грекова») // Вестник хирургии имени И. И. Грекова – 2020. –Т.179 №1– С.7–11 [Bagnenko S.F, Lazarev S.M. N. A. Velyaminov - surgeon, healthcare organizer and founder of the first surgical journal in Russia (1855-1920) (to the 135th anniversary of the journal "Herald of Surgery named after I. I. Grekov) // Vestnik khirurgii im. I.I. Grekova – 2020;(1): 7-11 (in Russ).]

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