Analysis of the awareness of students and schoolchildren about the causes of allergies, symptoms and methods of its treatment

  • Authors: Naraeva I.R.1, Bogatyrenko E.K.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко, кафедра патологической физиологии
  • Issue: Vol 9 (2020): Материалы XVI Международной Бурденковской научной конференции 23-25 апреля 2020 года
  • Pages: 335-336
  • Section: Физиологические механизмы адаптации в норме и патологии
  • URL: https://new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/6297

Cite item

Abstract

Relevance. Allergy has become a global medical and social problem. People around the world are increasingly suffering from allergic diseases. An increase in the incidence is recorded everywhere.
Goal. The purpose of this study was to study the awareness of students and schoolchildren about the factors causing allergies, methods of its prevention and treatment.
Methods. Theoretical analysis of the literature, development of a questionnaire, anonymous survey, processing of the results in MS Excel, the formation of conclusions and recommendations.
Results. The survey involved 153 respondents aged 12 to 20 years: students of the MBOU "Ertilskaya secondary school with UIOP" and students of different faculties of VSMU named after N.N.Burdenko. We conducted a survey, analyzed the research results, formed conclusions and recommendations.
25% of all survey participants, in their opinion, suffer from allergic pathology, the main forms of which are itching and redness of the skin and mucous membranes, nasal and lacrimation, nasal congestion, cough, suffocation, general malaise, weakness.
39.5% of respondents sought help from a doctor or specialized clinics. 2.5% are currently observed by allergists and immunologists.
74.5% of respondents believe that the main cause of allergies are various environmental factors (allergens), stressful situations, weakened immunity. 24.5% of the surveyed students associate the development of allergies with the influence of a genetic predisposition.
52% of respondents know about methods of prevention and treatment of allergies. 62% of those surveyed would like to know more about allergies. 30% of boys and girls have plans to be examined by an allergist or to check their immune status.
Conclusion. After analyzing the data and medical literature, we came to the conclusion that the most common factors contributing to the development of allergic pathology are: environmental pollution; tobacco smoke and dust of residential and work premises; eating food containing potential allergens; irrational use of drugs; various infectious pathologies of viral and bacterial origin; household chemicals. Also, the development of allergic diseases contributes to a burdened allergic history. 72% of the respondents know about the methods of prevention of allergic diseases and the rules of first aid. 53% of respondents would like to know more about allergic diseases and measures to prevent them. 28% of schoolchildren and students expressed a desire to talk with an allergist about this pathology.

Full Text

RELEVANCE. Allergy is a perverse reaction of the human body to allergens, which are substances of a foreign nature in their structure. The term allergy is a hypersensitivity of the body, which is based on hyperergic reactions. [one]
Symptoms and manifestations of allergic pathology are very diverse. Most often, itching, hyperemia, skin rashes and rashes on the mucous membranes, puffiness, allergic rhinitis, paroxysmal cough and sore throat, inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes, Quincke's edema, stomatitis, as well as nausea, vomiting, frequent loose stools, fever, general symptoms (malaise, weakness, drowsiness). The nature of the allergen, its concentration, intensity and exposure time play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergy.
Clinical observations show that allergy therapy presents certain difficulties, and preventive measures are most effective in combating this pathology. [2]
Non-specific allergy prevention is as follows:
• Limitation or complete elimination of contact with allergens (citrus fruits, animal hair, pollen during flowering, down and feathers of birds, dust, strong odors, household chemicals);
• Daily cleaning and airing of the premises;
• Fighting stress, which is one of the etiological factors in the development of allergies, and sometimes a trigger;
• Use of hypoallergenic household chemicals;
• Use of saline solutions to rinse the nose and throat;
• Balanced diet, eating hypoallergenic food;
• Improving general immunity, using vitamins, walking in the fresh air, sleeping and resting. [2], [4]
Currently, the incidence of allergies has increased due to environmental pollution, active urbanization, deterioration in the quality of food and water, the active use of cosmetic products and household chemicals. [3]
Also, it is believed that one of the reasons for the development of allergies may be a high level of hygiene in developed countries, where cases of infection with bacterial infections of children are not frequent, which leads to the absence of antibodies and the development of processes responsible for allergic reactions. [4] The less parasites become in the body, the more the immune system begins to react to substances that do not pose a danger to the body.
THE PURPOSE of this study was to study the awareness of students and schoolchildren about the factors causing allergies and methods of its prevention and treatment.
METHODS.
We did not have a clear planned research plan. The methods of analysis and questioning were used in the work.
The study design consisted of the following stages:
- study and systematize the basic concepts of scientific literature;
- preparation of a questionnaire form (selection and formulation of questions, their testing and correction);
- questioning;
- processing and analysis.
The following sections were highlighted in the questionnaire:
• data about the respondent being surveyed (gender, age, region of residence, educational institution);
• questions aimed at discovering knowledge about allergic diseases;
• questions aimed at identifying the prevalence of allergies.
Conditions
The developed questionnaire interviewed 153 people aged 12 to 20 years (boys and girls). The list of those surveyed was made by students of VSMU named after N.N.Burdenko - 91 people and students of MBOU "Ertilskaya secondary school with UIOP" - 62 people. The survey was carried out on paper. Were interviewed respondents of different age groups and education.
A total of 1.5 months were spent on research and processing of the obtained data.
RESULTS AND ITS DISCUSSION. According to the results of the survey, the respondents were divided into 4 age groups: the first group - 12-13 years old (12%), the second - 14-15 years old (14%), the third - 16-17 years old (15%), the fourth - 18-19 years old ( 59%). Of these, 62% were girls, 38% were boys. The respondents study in various educational institutions: 91 people - VSMU named after N.N.Burdenko (Voronezh, second-year students of the dental and pharmaceutical faculties), 62 people - MBOU "Ertilskaya secondary school with UIOP" (students in grades 6-9).
To the question "How do you understand what an allergy is?" the respondents gave a detailed answer: 72% wrote that an allergic disease is a reaction of the immune system to an irritant. They also listed the forms of its manifestation, such as: itching, hyperemia, lacrimation, cough, rhinitis, rash, choking.
Among them, it turned out that 1% of students and 41% of schoolchildren do not know methods of treating allergies. 99% of students and 59% of schoolchildren, respectively, answered that the therapy is used in the form of drugs and immunological preparations, and it is also important to exclude contact with allergens.
46% of respondents know methods of allergy prevention, 3% are not familiar with the concept of allergy, 51% of respondents answered: immunotherapy, the use of antiallergic pills, avoidance of contact with allergens, consultation and observation by an allergist.
50% of interviewees They indicated the trade names of drugs taken for allergic diseases: Diazolin, Erius, Zirtek, Suprastin, Claritin, Citrine.
The data of the medical literature show that recently more and more people began to suffer from allergic diseases. [3], [1] To the question "What do you think is the reason (s) of the pronounced increase in the incidence of allergies over the past decades?" 57% of schoolchildren and 3% of students could not give an answer; 74% consider the main reasons to be poor ecology and living conditions, stress, weak immunity; 26% of respondents noted heredity and irresponsible attitude of people to their health.
Also, the respondents were asked whether they suffer from allergies or not. It turned out that 22% of respondents among schoolchildren and 26% among students suffer from various allergic diseases. 1% suffer from allergies caused by household allergens; 2% - react to mosquito bites; 7% - do not tolerate pollen; 23% are intolerant of citrus fruits; 2% - react to drugs; 3% have seasonal manifestations. Allergic reactions in the respondents manifested themselves at different age periods: 15% - from birth, 32% from infancy, 26% - in adolescence, 27% in puberty. 50% of the interviewed turned to specialists, 2% of the respondents, today, are seen by an allergist.
65% of the respondents would like to have more information about allergic diseases (methods of treatment and prevention). 2% of respondents would like to receive information from Internet resources and 50% of respondents would like to receive advice from an allergist.
CONCLUSION. Based on the study, we formulated the following conclusions:
1. the cause of allergies is poor ecology, irrational and unhealthy nutrition, the use of drugs, contacts with biological objects [2], and poor heredity.
2. Most of the respondents would like to learn more about the problem of allergies, methods of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases with an allergic component.

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About the authors

Irina Romanovna Naraeva

Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко, кафедра патологической физиологии

Author for correspondence.
Email: iranaraeva@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8296-8792
SPIN-code: 3183-7777
Russian Federation

Ekaterina Konstantinovna Bogatyrenko

Воронежский государственный медицинский университет им. Н.Н.Бурденко, кафедра патологической физиологии

Email: ivanova_sveta71@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8296-8792
SPIN-code: 4447-7048

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